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Reggie knows the music. It is in his blood. He can trace the many, varied styles and influences of southeast Louisiana music all the way back to pre-colonial Africa. July 13, am — pm. July 13, pm — pm. Lloyd Jones Trio, Mac's Place. Norman Sylvester Band, Spare Room. The Strange Tones, Blue Diamond. July 14, pm — pm.

Tracey Fordice Band, Alesong Brewery. July 15, pm — pm. Rae Gordon Band, Sellwood Park. July 16, pm — pm. Miss Etta's World, Dawson Park. Ladies Night Out, Blue Diamond. July 17, pm — pm. Billy D. July 18, pm — pm. Garry Meziere Birthday! Ben Rice Band, Clydes. July 19, pm — pm.

James Clem, Mark's on the Channel. Known for her passionate, driven style, this powerhouse vocalist consistently delivers standout performances - both live and in the studio, garnering awards and critical acclaim throughout the US, Canada, Europe, and South America. NorthWest Music Scene hails her as one of the best artists in the Northwest. A committed social activist, Lovely's songs address domestic violence, sexual abuse, homelessness, mental health, addiction, and suicide.

She donated proceeds from pre-sales of Fish Outta Water to RAINN, the nation's largest anti-sexual assault organization, and includes links to domestic violence and sexual assault hotlines in each of her studio album liner notes. Big bossa featuring Sheila Wilcoxson, Mock Crest. Bottleneck Blues Band, Blue Diamond. July 20, pm — pm. Pat Stilwell Band, Blue Diamond. Tracey Fordice Band, Mock Crest. July 21, pm — pm.

July 22, pm — pm. The event will showcase music from their second studio album that is scheduled for release in early fall. The album features eleven original songs, many of which they wrote to present for the Cascade Blues Association at the International Blues Challenge. The tracks offer an eclectic, cross-genre journey into the couple's past and present lives. The collection takes its listener through a cohesive, yet diverse, display of stories that highlight Julie's uniquely pure vocals and Dean's keen sense of rhythm and blues.

The band members, who also performed on the recording, are being kept secret until the night of the show where they reveal their new music. Doors open at ; the show starts at Advance ticket purchase is recommended. July 23, pm — pm. July 24, pm — pm. July 25, pm — pm. Sonny Hess, McMenamins Edgefield. July 26, pm — pm. Lisa Mann Trio, Habitat for Humanity. Norman Sylvester Band, Clydes. July 27, pm — pm.

James Clem, Muddy Rudder. July 28, pm — pm. July 29, pm — pm. July 30, pm — pm. July 31, pm — pm. Ben Rice, Aurora Concerts in the Park. August 1, pm — pm. The Ventilators, Mekong Bistro. August 2, pm — pm. J Wise Band, Feckin Brewery. August 3, pm — pm. Event Title required. Date required. Your Name. Your Email. Watts St. Agatha Catholic School St. David of Wales Episcopal Church St. Josef's Winery St. Category Live Music Jam Session.

Event Calendar. Previous Next. Month Week Day. Categories Jam Session Live Music. Upright Brewing N Broadway 2,. Portland , OR. Map Upright Brewing. Portland ,. Map Spirits Pub. Map Blue Diamond. Trail's End Saloon Main St. Oregon City , OR Map Trail's End Saloon. Fox Farm Vineyards Oregon 99W. Dundee , OR Map Fox Farm Vineyards. Montavilla Station SE 80th Avenue. Portland , OR Map Montavilla Station.

Aloha , OR Close July 1, pm — pm. Lake Oswego , OR Map Mekong Bistro. Map Spud Monkey. Muddy Rudder SE 7th. Map Muddy Rudder. Milwaukie , Hillsboro , OR Map The Blue Diamond. Clydes NE Sandy Blvd. Map Clydes. In all the ports where there is a surveyor, he receives also a commission of inspector, which is necessary in the performance of some of his duties in relation to imported teas and spirits.

In the ports where, as Kennebunk, there is no surveyor, the collector receives the same commission. Considering it as a matter of course, I have filled one of the blank commissions with his name for that office, which I hope will meet your approbation. Governor Drayton has communicated that Ed. Darrel had accepted the place of commissioner of direct tax for the first division of South Carolina, for which he had received a blank commission.

Darrel has also written, and hopes to complete the assessment in November. That of North Carolina is completed. No answer yet on the subject from Georgia. The answer to New Haven seems to have had a greater effect Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] than had been calculated upon. The Republicans hope for a greater number of removals; the Federals also expect it. I have already received several letters from Philadelphia applying for the offices of customs, upon the ground that it is generally understood that the officers there are to be removed.

There is no doubt that the Federal leaders are making a powerful effort to rally their party on the same ground. Although some mistakes may have been made as to the proper objects both of removal and appointment, it does not appear that less than what has been done could have been done without injustice to the Republicans. But ought much more to be done? It is so important for the permanent establishment of those republican principles of limitation of power and public economy, for which we have successfully contended, that they should rest on the broad basis of the people, and not on a fluctuating party majority, that it would be better to displease many of our political friends than to give an opportunity to the irreconcilable enemies of a free government of inducing the mass of the Federal citizens to make a common cause with them.

The sooner we can stop the ferment the better; and at all events it is not desirable that it should affect the eastern and southern parts of the Union. I fear less from the importunity of obtaining offices than from the arts of those men whose political existence depends on that of party.

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Office-hunters cannot have much influence, but the other class may easily persuade the warmest of our friends that more ought to be done for them. Upon the whole, although a few more changes may be necessary, I hope there will be but a few. The number of removals is not great, but in importance they are beyond their number.

The supervisors of all the violent party States embrace all the collectors. Add to that the intended change in the post-office, and you have in fact every man in office out of the seaports. Whilst on that subject, is it not proper that the suppression of the nineteen offices of inspectors, worth twenty thousand dollars, should be known and understood? If you approve, I would send to the press the order itself which you signed for that purpose.

The last was suspected and turned out; the first was not suspected, but resigned. He wants Gardner to be made agent with the Choctaw Indians, and Campbell to have a commission in the army. Whatever impropriety there might be in their conduct, I have reason to believe Gardner to be a man of honor. Campbell is very impudent, but as enthusiastic as his friends the United Irishmen, I mean commonly are. Thornton presses for a decision in the question of admission of French privateers and their prizes.

I can give no opinion, having never considered the subject; but unless it is much clearer than I expect, it seems that delay is desirable, at least until after the ratification of the French convention. I know that you must at last meet the question; but Thornton would not speak if he was not instructed, and the importance of a decision is too great to be risked on any but the strongest grounds.

Your favors of the 8th and 10th came to hand yesterday. Ignorance of the law in the case of Hopkins, together with his having paid everything the Treasury had a right to, and gained nothing by the non-entry of his still, appear to bring him within the scope of the pardoning power. If you think so, and will have a pardon forwarded to me, I will sign it. I enclose you the resignation of Anthony W. White, as surveyor of the port of New Brunswick.

If this be the person I suppose, it will be no loss to the public. The case of the expenditure of the hospital money, partly from the defects of the law, partly the difficulty of the subject, is very perplexing. How would it answer to get along as we have done till the meeting of the Legislature, and then to endeavor to establish a systematic plan legislatively? I know nothing of Chisman, proposed as collector of Hampton, and our friend Mr. Page, from the benevolent and unsuspicious cast of his mind, is the most unsafe recommender we can possibly follow. He never sees but the good qualities of a man, and those through the largest magnifiers.

As the case will, I suppose, admit of some delay, I will write to persons of the neighborhood for further information, and will communicate the result; but if it admits no delay, then we may appoint Chisman, but be assured it will be at considerable risk. For the collectorship of Savannah I should prefer the recommendation of Jackson, who is of the State, to that of Burke, who is out of it.

Will it not await the answers you expect from Baldwin, Milledge, and Taliaferro? I shall have great reluctance indeed at removing Simmons, and especially as he promises the same Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] support to this which he gave to the preceding Administration: this removes the only reason urged by Mr. Pinckney for depriving him of his place, to wit, his electioneering influence and energy. At any rate, we must take time and have more information on the subject. The removals desired by Mr. Langdon are on better ground, but they also may wait a while.

Is Jonas Clark, proposed as collector of Kennebunk, a Republican? His having been nominated by our predecessor excites a presumption against it; and if he is not, we must be inflexible against appointing Federalists till there be a due portion of Republicans introduced into office. It gives just offence to those who have been constantly excluded heretofore to be still excluded by those who have been brought in to correct the system. The answer to New Haven does not work harder than I expected.

It gives mortal offence to the Monarchical Federalists, who were mortally offended before. I do not believe it is thought unreasonable by the Republican Federalists. In one point the effect is not exactly what I expected. It has given more expectation to the sweeping Republicans than I think its terms justify; to the moderate and genuine Republicans it seems to have given perfect satisfaction. I am satisfied it was indispensably necessary in order to rally round one point all the shades of Republicanism and Federalism, exclusive of the Monarchical, and I am in hopes it will do it.

At any event, while we push the patience of our friends to the utmost it will bear, in order that we may gather into the same fold all the Republican Federalists possible, we must not, even for this object, absolutely revolt our tried friends. I have no doubt of the expediency of publishing the suppression of the inspectorships, with an explanation of the grounds of it. With respect to Gardner as agent with the Choctaws, is one wanting, and has he the fitness for the place? If not, I should wish to make some other provision for him. With respect to Campbell, a restoration to the same office would seem the best and safest redress.

I have no doubt we have a right to put the French and English on the same footing, by either receiving or excluding the prizes of both nations. The latter is our best policy; but I would never permit a foreign minister, on the foundation Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] of a mere newspaper paragraph, before the character of a fact be known, or even that it is a fact, to draw the government into the discussion and decision of the gravest and most difficult questions.

I am clear, therefore, for giving no answer till the transaction and its whole character be authentically defined. From Mr. Why should we be so complaisant as to decide for them beforehand? In a letter of this day to General Dearborn I have proposed our general rendezvous at Washington, on the last day of September. Present my best respects to Mrs. Gallatin, and be assured yourself of my sincere and friendly attachment and respect.

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Your favor of the 7th instant was received on the 11th, the day after the mail had closed. It arrives here on Tuesday, departs on Monday. You may answer by same mail, but cannot receive answer in less than fortnight. You will receive enclosed, as usual, the list of warrants, and I also enclose a letter from Mr. Doyley, and one from W. Jones, member of Congress for Philadelphia. The first letter is not written in as explicit a language as might have been wished; but may not this be inferred from his and Mr.

Doyley and his friends fear, in case of a Republican succeeding, that he may have personal views different from theirs and favor appointments of different persons. And is not this the reason why Mr. Doyley and friends wish the appointment to take place before the meeting of Congress? I have invited Mr.

Doyley to a free communication of his sentiments. You will find by the other letter that the Republicans expect a change in Philadelphia: this expectation is owing partly to the removal of the collector of New York, and partly to the answer to New Haven, which, as I mentioned before, has had a greater, if not a better, effect than was expected. Of the four persons he recommends, the name of Bache would be most popular; but he wants industry. Clay is certainly the most capable, unless Conoly, who is highly respected by all who know him, should be supposed to understand that particular business better.

Upon the whole, in that also it is much better to wait the meeting of Congress. Dallas, who was here, agrees with me. Yet it must be allowed that the warm Republicans will be displeased. It is the same in New York in regard to Rogers, who, though the most capable, was the most obnoxious to the zealous Republicans. Duane has been here, and I have taken an opportunity of showing the impropriety of numerous removals.

He may think the reasons good, but his feelings will be at war with any argument on the subject. Clay has also been here: the number of young men of true merit and some scientific knowledge is so small in our middle States, that I cannot help being very desirous that something for which he may be fit might be done for him. His father has, excluding him, placed his younger brother in an eligible commercial situation, and the Bank of North America will never promote him beyond his one thousand dollars salary. What do you think of the Lisbon or one of the Barbary consulships?

I do not know that either would suit him, but wish only to be acquainted with your intentions generally. I had understood that a commission of marshal New Jersey had been directed to issue in favor of General John Heard, and I believe he had understood as much. An application has, in fact, been made for the commission, on a supposition that it had been lost.

I have told Wagner to send you a blank one, that, if it was intended, it may be filled. The present marshal is Thomas Lowry; he has been in since 26th September, , his commission expires 28th January, Miller has put in my hands the enclosed from Mr. It may be difficult to answer, yet he has been uniformly considered as the mere tool of Hamilton, and was with Giles and Watson, Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] the most active electioneering officer of government in New York.

I must say something to Miller about it. Livingston said that the removal of Fish was not expected so long as Rogers was permitted to continue. By the by, it seems to me that Fish intends that letter for publication. I have heard that Fenwick had received a letter of later date from Bordeaux, stating the ratification of our convention with France, and Dawson being on his way back, but have not been able to ascertain whether true or not.

I am, with sincere respect and attachment, dear sir, your most obedient servant. Your favors of the 15th and 17th are received; you will find an approbation signed at the foot of Mr. As far as I see of the matter, I should approve of his appointment, but I rather think it was concluded there should be no more removals till we should meet again.

This is still my opinion; for however this gradual proceeding may in some respects be disagreeable, yet I have no doubt it offers greater advantage than evil. On this ground, as well as that specially noted in a former letter, nothing should be immediately done in South Carolina. The Dunwoody Secretary stands on a mass of family interests not to be thought little of. We should make a great many enemies for one friend.

I sincerely wish Judge Burke could be fully impressed with the fatal consequences of a division on the election of a Senator for South Carolina. I like much the idea of giving Clay the consulship of Lisbon. I deem it the most important consulship Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] in our gift. I will write to Mr. Madison on the subject and ask his opinion. The letter of Fish is certainly not to be answered. The answer to New Haven was called for by great motives; but it must not lead us into the lists with every individual. Accept assurances of my affectionate esteem and high consideration.

I am sorry Mr.


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Clay declines the consulship; it would have been very pleasing to us to replace our minister at Lisbon by such a consul as Clay. Perhaps reconsideration and inquiry into the advantages of the situation may reconcile it to him. I have not here my bundle of claims for office, and therefore cannot propose a successor for Colonel White in Jersey.

Your acquaintance in the State will better enable you to do it. I have written to three gentlemen of great discretion, one at Norfolk, the others near Hampton, on the subject of Chisman. I have an answer from the one at Norfolk, who has never heard of him. I shall hear from the others before the next post. I have known Mr.

Page from the time we were boys and classmates together, and love him as a brother, but I have always known him the worst judge of man existing. He has fallen a sacrifice to the ease with which he gives his confidence to those who deserve it not. Still, if we hear nothing against Chisman, we may venture to do what will be agreeable to Mr. He has not an enemy in the world. But we have but one officer here whom the general voice, Whig and Tory, marks for removal; and I am not well enough acquainted with its duties to be certain Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] that they are adapted to Mr.

The explanation you give of the nature of the office proposed for Jonas Clarke silences my doubts, and I agree to the appointment. I think we should do justice to Campbell and Gardner, and cannot suppose the Auditor will think hard of replacing them in their former berths. He has seen us restore officers where we thought their removal unjust, and cannot therefore view it in this case as meant to censure himself specially.

Specific restitution is the particular measure of justice which the case calls for. Before the British treaty, no stipulation stood in the way of permitting France to sell her prizes here; and we did permit it, but expressly as a favor, not as a right. These stipulations admit the prizes to put into our ports in cases of necessity, or perhaps of convenience, but no right to remain if disagreeable to us; and absolutely not to be sold.

We have accordingly lately ordered away a British vessel brought in by a Spanish armed ship, and I have given it as my opinion to Mr. Madison that the British snow Windsor, lately brought in by the prisoners she was carrying, ought to be sent away. My opinion is, that whatever we are free to do we ought to do to throw difficulties in the way of the depredations committed on commerce, and chiefly our own commerce.

In the case of the Spanish privateer at Wilmington, North Carolina, who wants to sell as much of his prize as will refit the privateer, it is absolutely forbidden. The directions you have already given as to the prize herself coincide perfectly with what I think right. No pardon has come to me from Mr. Wagner for Hopkins.

I Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] consent to the transfer you propose of the superintendence of the light-houses of Portsmouth and New York to the present collectors of those ports, and to the appointment of the collector for Savannah recommended by General Jackson, if you learn nothing to the contrary from the delegates. Accept assurances of my affectionate esteem and high respect.

Your favor of August 29th came to hand on the 3d, but no commission for Chisman is come to hand from Mr. Wagner; it shall be signed as soon as received, as my information relative to him is favorable. I return you all the papers received in your last, except the list of warrants.

With respect to Sproat, you will do what you find best. The circular letter has my entire approbation. I have written by this post both to Mr. Meredith and Colonel Habersham fixing the translation of the latter to the last day of October. Madison happened to be with me on the arrival of our last post, and had directed his mail to be brought here, but it has failed, consequently he has not yet received his letters by the Maryland, and we are as yet uninformed of the points on which the ratification is suspended, but we both conclude it improper to delay either the Boston or Mr.

He gives notice by this post that the departure of both must be prepared, and hopes to receive his letters in time to prepare and forward Mr. I wish Murray may not trust himself with any important modifications. If the treaty should never be ratified, it will only begin the work of placing us clear of treaty with all nations. I learn with sincere regret the continued illness of your child.

My sympathies with you in that distress flow from great trials in the same school at a former period of my life. My health has been uninterrupted, as well as that of my family; so also has been Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] Mr. No letter written by you after your receipt of this can be answered sooner than by myself in person, as I shall be with you on the 30th. Accept assurance of my sincere esteem and high respect. I duly received your favor of the 28th ultimo.

In the case of the intended successor of General White as surveyor at Brunswick, I applied to the printer, S. If that will not do, might it not be well to apply for information to General Heard, who lives within ten miles of Brunswick? I received a letter from Mr. Milledge, of Georgia, recommending, without any remarks, four persons as proper to succeed Mr. Powell, the collector of Savannah. One of the four, though not the first in order, is the same person whom Governor Jackson recommended.

The office is so important that I have thought it best to delay filling the commission for one week longer, in order, if possible, to receive answers from Messrs. As you have acquaintances in the vicinity of Norfolk, it is very desirable that information should be obtained from them on the subject of a proper successor for Nat. Wilkins, collector of Cherry Stone Eastern Shore, Virginia , who is the worst delinquent on the list, his last account rendered being to 31st December, I have written to Mr. Page and young Mr.

Newton, but neither can recommend any person. The successor should have integrity, keenness, and firmness. There is much smuggling in that district, and, the people being in the habit of favoring it, it will require some exertions to put an end to it. The two enclosed from Mr. Brent, and from Mr. Steele, the last covering one from Mr. Simmons, require no comment. You will see by that of Mr. Jarvis that he declines accepting the collectorship of Penobscot.

This leaves us in a very awkward situation, as in the mean while, Lee being superseded, we have no collector there. Jarvis recommends his brother. On the other hand, I have a recommendation for P. Serjeant, which I enclose. It was given me at the time by General Dearborn, who spoke favorably of the applicant, but on the whole preferred Mr. Jarvis—him who declines. In respect to the appointment of an inspector of internal revenue for the new district of North-West of Ohio, I enclose Mr.

Upon the whole, it has appeared to me most eligible to fill the blank commission you left for that object with the name of Th. Worthington, leaving him a reasonable time to resign either that or the place of register of the land office. It had been my intention to fill the commission with the name of Samuel Finley, the receiver of Chillicothe, as the two offices seemed more compatible, and the commission on that of receiver one per cent. If upon investigation it will appear that it was owing only to the pressure of business, and Mr.

You will be able to appreciate the weight of his recommendations Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] in favor of two persons as collectors at Cayuga and Cincinnati. I do not expect any further information in relation to those two posts, and will, of course, wait for your instructions.

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The list of warrants is, as usual, enclosed. Payments go on very well. After making the payments of interest due for this quarter at the end of this month, we will have two millions and a half, at least, in the Treasury. We had but two at the end of last quarter. My only embarrassment proceeds from the difficulty of purchasing good bills on Amsterdam, in which we ought to have had five hundred thousand dollars more invested by the 1st October next.

We have paid heretofore but thirty-nine, but must now give forty cents per guilder. I was absent when the despatches from France arrived, and cannot form any precise opinion of the result. I have uniformly thought that the modification proposed by the Senate having put it in the power of France to act as they pleased, that consistency was not, in the situation of Bonaparte, to be expected, which a government solely actuated by the permanent and solid interest of its nation would be likely to preserve.

If, for any reasons connected with foreign policy or their own domestic concerns, they do not think it their interest to ratify at the moment when the negotiation takes place, I think that they will take hold of the alteration proposed. Yet I had thought that peace with America was so popular in France that they would not run the risk of a rejection, and that that cause would preponderate over any other. On the other hand, it is clear that the signing of the convention was at least hastened by the wish to operate favorably on the northern powers, and that this motive has now ceased.

If they intend to make peace with Great Britain, may they not think that they will be likely to make a more advantageous treaty with us after that event, or rather after the expiration of the British treaty, than now? If they are really sincere in their objections to the omission, and it seems also to the restoration of the second article, and insist on a positive renunciation of indemnities and treaties, not with a view of defeating the treaty, but because they actually want Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] such renunciation, may it be that they intend to occupy not only Louisiana, but also the Floridas, and wish therefore an explicit annullation of the Treaty of ?

I hope these delays will not be attended with any real change in the relative situation of the two countries, but I fear the effect on the public mind here. Commodore Dale has arrived almost in the nick of time in the Mediterranean; yet it is to be wished that he had met the Tripolitan at sea instead of Gibraltar. This will be handed by M. Davis, of New York, the candidate for the naval office. I used my endeavors to prevent his proceeding to Monticello, but he had left New York with that intention, and is not easily diverted from his purpose. The reason he gives for his anxiety is that, immediately after the adjournment of Congress, E.

Livingston and others mentioned to him that a positive arrangement was made by the Administration by which he was to be appointed to that office; that he was so perfectly confident, till some time in June, that such was the fact, as to refuse advantageous proposals of a permanent establishment, and the general belief on that subject has placed him in a very awkward situation in New York.

He presses me much, on the ground of my personal knowledge both of him and of the local politics of New York, to give you my opinion in a decided manner on that subject; which to him I declined, both because in one respect it was not made up, and because my own opinion, even if decided, neither ought nor would decide yours. A good way to teach the story is to have two students read it aloud in class. The students will hear the shift in voices, and will want to discuss the characters and the conflict.

See also: Selwyn R. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. What is the conflict in this story? Is the girl naive? First, a word about the title. Although Mary is mentioned relatively few times in the New Testament, images of Mary have been an enormous presence in the history of art. She may be depicted by herself or with the infant Jesus sitting or standing on her lap, or she may be shown seated, with the dead Jesus across her legs, and she may be accompanied by saints or angels. She is often represented—espe- cially in medieval and Renaissance altarpieces, as Queen of Heaven, seated on a throne, usually identified as the Throne of Solomon.

The image described by Anatole France, where doves representations of seven gifts of the Holy Spirit fly above the Virgin and where lions flank the throne, is relatively rare, but a medievalist has called our attention to a reproduction of such a mural in the cathedral at Gurk, Austria in Otto Demus, Romanesque Mural Painting , page 19, and for a larger view of part of the image, page Next, a few words about the narrator.

The narrator—we are not talking about Anatole France but about his invented narrator—seems to be a pious fel- low, someone recounting without any trace of skepticism a medieval religious tale. That is, the language itself, as well as the substance, takes us out of our world of everyday speech, into the voice of a storyteller recounting an old tale. The second thing we can say about the narrator is that he is a pious fellow the same could not be said about the author.

Finally, if yet another example is wanted, we refer to the passage in paragraph 12 about peace being granted to men of good will, an echo of Luke 2. In short, we think that France does a good job of creating a narrator who is sympathetic to the pious medieval tale that he tells. Of course the gist of the story is that the highly educated and highly tal- ented monks do not comprehend the piety of the ignorant juggler, or, rather, cannot—until a miracle takes place—comprehend that the Virgin may value his offering as much as theirs, so we can say that the story implies some criticism of the clergy.

France does not, however, caricature the clergy, does not make them evil or even ridiculous. That is, the contrast through most of the story is not between faith and hypocrisy or faith and envious competition but, rather, it is between the unlettered juggler and the highly trained talented monks. In this instance, Mary is moved to minister to another of her children, the sweating.

Some students may be familiar with the sculpture by Michelangelo, in St. Finally, two bibliographic references: Timothy Verdon, Mary in Western Art is an oversize book with many handsome illustrations in color, accompanied by an excellent text. Also of interest, though the pictures are rel- atively few and they are poorly reproduced, is Jaroslav Pelikan, Mary Through the Centuries Since the editors of Literature for Composition were not born digital, we are grate- ful for the translation: We assume that most of your students will find it superflu- ous.

But despite the translation, we ask our students and you might ask yours : What does the in the title mean? We ask our students to analyze the components of the txt pom that make it successful. By the way, some students may not notice that Bird employs rhyme [e. What images does the speaker use to describe the young man she fancies? And what class are they in? Suppose they were in an economics class, what images might the speaker use there? We also ask our students to compare the txt pom with the translation. Which do they prefer? The poem of course is based on the Ten Commandments also called the deca- logue , which appear twice in the Hebrew Bible Exodus , and Deuteronomy 5.

The commandments are numbered differently in Judaism and in Christianity, and indeed Christians do not agree on the number- ing thus the commandment against murder is the sixth for Jews and for some Anglicans but it is the fifth for Roman Catholics and for Lutherans. But, again, we would not push these slight connections. The effect is, more or less, to suggest that the fancy or pretty talk stops. The explosion is too serious to be treated in a literary way. A word about the rhymes: Notice that although the poem does use rhyme, it does not use a couplet until the last two lines.

Of course, when one reads the poem in a book, one sees where the poem ends—though a reader may be surprised to find the forceful rhyme—but an audience hearing the poem recited is surely taken off-guard. The explosion is unexpected especially in the context of the two previous lines about a sagging, heavy load and powerful. There is an excellent two-volume biography of Hughes by Arnold Rampersad vol. The short stories have been edited by Akiba Sullivan Harper But most of the scholarly books focus on the poetry, rather than on the fiction.

The best points of depar- ture for studying this writer are two collections: Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives Past and Present , ed. One might keep the first line where it is, and then rearrange the other stanzas— for instance, putting lines 2—8 after 9— Sonnet 73 That time of year thou mayst in me behold p. Sonnets 1— seem to be addressed to, or concerned with, a handsome, aristocratic young man who is urged to marry and thus to propagate his beauty and become immortal.

Sonnets — are chiefly concerned with a promiscuous dark woman who seduces a friend, at least for a while. Certainly it sounds like autobiography, but this is only to say that Shakespeare is a writer who sounds convincing. The chief argument that the poems really may be autobiographical is that the insistence that the friend marry is so odd a theme. Lewis says in English Literature in the Sixteenth Century , what man except a potential father-in-law cares if another man gets married? One other point: Do the poems addressed to the beautiful friend suggest a homosexual interest?

It seems reasonable to say that what the speaker of the sonnets wants from the friend is not sex but love. All three quatrains, in varying degrees, glance at increasing coldness and darkness, and each successive quatrain is concerned. In the first, the human life is compared to a year; in the second, to a day; in the third, to a few hours. Note, too, that it is reasonable to perceive, faintly, a resemblance between the shaking boughs and a trembling old person.

The first quatrain, then, is rich in suggestions of ruined beauty and destroyed spirituality. The year will renew itself, and the day will renew itself, but the firewood is utterly destroyed. In College English 24 January : —, John Parrish summarized these discussions, rejecting the idea that in the first quatrain, especially in lines 2 and 4, God is compared to a tinker mending a damaged pewter vessel, and offering his own reading.

Our own winnowings from these essays follow. Explicator December , Item Abrams, Natural Supernaturalism ,. Theodore Redpath rev. Clements rev. Smith See also Robert H. Ray, A John Donne Companion What is the point? Why not? You can return to a version of this question after you have reached the end of the poem. How much does the poem benefit from this title?

Would the poem change, for bet- ter or worse, if it were printed not with this title, but as it sometimes is with the opening line as the title? Another good question for the class: Where is the speaker? Or is she—less likely, but still possible—inside, looking outward on a wintry scene from which she cannot break free? The point is perhaps an obvious one, but we have found that it needs to be made explicitly and demonstrated to the students through examples.

Still another question: What is it that has overtaken the speaker? It is more than a little hard to say. But what about the spell itself? What does it consist of, and from where has it come? The spell seems terrible and terrifying, but not entirely. Perhaps, one suspects, the speaker will not go because she needs to discover what this spell is about. The Oxford English Dictionary weighs in with dreariness, sadness, gloom. But how then does this word fit in the poem? Is the speaker saying: No matter how cheerless and gloomy the scene is around me, I will not, cannot, go from it—the spell is too powerful?

It could be that the modern dictionaries we consulted are not the right ones for this word. The speaker tells us that something intense is happening to her, but she leaves unstated its exact source or cause. We can probe and speculate, but this speaker remains distant from us even as she tells us that paralysis has over- taken her.

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Unless, that is, we are drawn to say that this speaker is not address- ing us at all but, rapt as she is, is speaking solely to herself. Derek Roper with Edward Chitham , is recommended. Singing is infectious; the speaker asks his mother to sing, and his grandmother joins her. The song apparently is joyful picnickers—though admittedly the picnic is dispelled by rain , but since it is about a lost world it is also sorrowful the women begin to cry. Yet, even singing about sorrow provides the singer with joy, or, we might say, the making of a work of art here, singing a song is pleas- urable even when the content is sorrowful.

One way of mastering sorrow, of course, is to turn it into art. We reprint here a good explication, by a student, Juan Alonso. The halves make a sharp contrast. Given the title, the fur probably literally refers to the fur lining of the jackets that fliers wore in World War II, and it also suggests the animal-like existence he led while confined by this unfeeling foster parent, the State-airplane.

His awakening or birth is to nightmarish reality and death. It is not surprising, but it is certainly horrifying, that in this world of an impersonal State that numbs and destroys life, his body is flushed out of the turret with a hose. That this is the third horrible release: the first was from the mother into the State; the second was from the belly of the State into the belly of the airplane; and now in shreds from the belly of the air- plane into nothing. That this life-history is told flatly, with no note of protest, increases the horror.

The simplicity of the last line more effectively brings out the horror of the experience than an anguished cry or an angry protest could do. Jarrell is a splendid critic, whose likes and dislikes are illuminating: See Poetry and the Age and Kipling, Auden, and Co. The Complete Poems is available, but for students, The Selected Poems is a preferable point of entry.

Jarrell reads and discusses the poem on Caedman cassette SWC Subsequent chapters will cite a fair number of recent titles relevant to this chap- ter, but for a start a reader might first turn to an old but readable, humane, and still useful introduction, David Daiches, A Study of Literature Some basic reference works should be mentioned. Hugh Holman and William Harmon have written an introductory dictionary of movements, critical terms, literary periods, and genres: A Handbook to Literature , 7th ed.

For fuller discussions of critical terms, see Wendell V. The Johns Hopkins Guide , though it includes substantial entries on individual critics as well as on critical schools, is occasionally disappointing in the readability of some of its essays and especially in its coverage, since it does not include critical terms other than names of schools of criticism.

Alex Preminger and T. Brogan Michael Payne For a collection of essays on the canon, see Canons , ed. Joseph Gibaldi, 2nd ed. The biblical story is, in a way, a sort of early detective story. There is a death, a conflict in the testimony of the two witnesses, and a solution by a shrewd outsider. There seems to be nothing that distin- guishes the two claimants. This exact repetition of a sentence is, of course, especially appropriate in a story about two seemingly indistinguishable women and about a proposal to divide an infant into two.

We have already mentioned that it is important for the two women to be, in effect, indistinguishable, but why did the author make them harlots? We can. One other point: the basic motif of two women fighting over an infant, and the true mother revealing her identity by rejecting a proposal that will kill the infant, is found in many cultures. For instance, in an Indian Jataka story a story of the lives of the Buddha before he reached his final incarnation as the Historical Buddha, Siddhartha , a mother brought her child to a river bank, where a she-demon claimed it as her own.

The two brought the case to the Buddha-to-be, who ordered the women to engage in a tug-of-war with the child in the center, but the mother yielded her claim rather than destroy the child. See E. Cowell and W. Rouse, Jataka Stories , 6 , p.


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Christina Buchmann and Celina Spiegel We quote a few extracts; you may want to try them out with your students. Had he not called for the sword, the other woman might never have expressed her seemingly violent impulse. Maybe she would have picked up the sword and slain the child with her own hands, but we certainly do not know that. Women are expected to back down, negotiate, settle, and accept arbitrary assaults of men at home, on the street, and in the workplace. They are expected to respond with the self-sacrifice of the first prostitute.

And when they do not, when they defiantly transgress the laws of men, women must endure, Eve-like, the punishment meted out to them. When the sword is raised and the command given to divide the child, the women know that they have but. Their speech is uttered in a fearful rush, a female cry in the face of seemingly arbitrary male violence.

By judging the women on the basis of a few frantic words, he erases the fullness and complexity of their lives. A bibliographic note about parables may be useful. Joachim Jeremias, in The Parables of Jesus , rev. He summarizes his approach as follows: I want to reverse the traditional and common sense view that stories con- vey, illustrate, prove or emotionally support themes. Morals and themes, I argue, convey to audiences what story is to be made out of sentences.

The story flows, so to speak, from theme, rather than the theme following from the story. If not, why not? To illustrate the danger of pressing too hard, you might mention medieval allegorizations of the story. The gist of these is this: the older brother represents the Pharisees and teachers who resented the conversion of the Gentiles. Thus the fact that the older brother was in the fields when the prodigal returned was taken as standing for the remoteness of the Pharisees and the teachers from the grace of God. The pods that the prodigal ate represent either the vices which cannot satisfy or pagan liter- ature again, unsatisfying.

The father represents God the Father; his going forth to meet the prodigal stands for the Incarnation; his falling on the neck of the prodigal stands for the mild yoke that Christ places on the neck of his follow- ers Matthew — The music the older brother hears represents the praise of God, and the feast of the fatted calf represents the Eucharist.

A great deal more of this sort of thing can be found in Stephen L. The point should already be clear. Odd as the interpretations now seem, they were the result of an admirable love of the word, and surely such an excess is preferable to indifference. Is the parable an allegory? No, and yes. Certainly it does not have the detailed system of correspondences that one associates with allegory.

And yet, as Jeremias says p. Need a reader believe in God or in the divinity of Jesus in order to value this story? The point is surely worth discussing in class. Most students will agree that such belief is not necessary, and from here one can go on to discuss stories as ways of imaginatively entering alien worlds. Class discussion may begin with an examination of the point at which it is apparent that this story is comic. The first two.

Instructors may find it useful to introduce the concept of pathos and to lead the class in a discussion of the relation of the pathetic to the tragic and the comic. Brooks and Warren provide an interpretation of the story in various edi- tions of Understanding Fiction; Charles S. Carl Sundell examines the structure of the story e. This essay is a vigorous defense of Mrs. Mitty, who is usually thought of as a nag. Mitty seems responsible and concerned.

In a paragraph, characterize Mrs. In an essay of words, evaluate the view that Mrs. Mitty is exactly the sort of woman Walter Mitty needs. It happens, however, that what especially interests us about the poem is the issue we raise in our first question: Why do people enjoy songs about unhappy love? Because it gives us a chance to impose form onto suffering and thus implies a kind of mastery over suffering?

In any case, many students will be familiar with the motif and will be able to offer explanations accounting for the pleasure they take in the material. Aphra Behn was not only a poet but also a playwright and novelist, and when teaching her poetry, we often take note of her powerful narrative of slav- ery and colonization, Oroonoko c. Because many students will have read this story in high school, it can be used effectively as the first assignment. It may be good to begin a class discussion by asking the students to characterize the narrator. And so the words at the end of the story, fifty years later, must have an ironic tone, for though in pace requiescat can apply to Fortunato, they cannot apply to the speaker, who is still talking on his deathbed, to a priest?

The story is full of other little ironies, conscious on the part of Montresor, unconscious on the part of Fortunato:. But what to make of all this? She sees the journey through the tunnel to the crypt as an entry into the womb; the narrator is killing his father Fortunato and possessing his mother. My treasure, my fortune, down into the bowels of the earth, a charnel-house of bones. It surely is worthwhile to call attention to the parable of the wise and foolish virgins, in Matthew —13, where the bridegroom does appear, but the foolish virgins miss him.

The first jilting could in some meas- ure be overcome, but the second is unendurable. Exactly who is Hapsy? Presumably she had at last come to love her husband. On this point, it is relevant to mention, too, that one of her sons is named George—presumably for the man who jilted her—and the other son is not named John, for his father, but Jimmy. But other readers interpret Hapsy dif- ferently. Among the answers usually given are: her father, a brother, the man she later married. These details probably do not affect the overall interpretation of the story.

To return to a larger matter, what interpretation of the story makes the most sense? What happens if we consider the story chiefly in the light of the Parable of the Ten Virgins? This is the way we have long seen the story, and we still have a strong attachment to that view, but a rereading of the parable Matthew Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them.

But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves.

And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the son of man cometh. Nor does the fact that she had a Catholic education tell us much about what she made of the parable.

It appears that to understand the story we can do nothing more than read the story, and perhaps read the parable. The bridegroom may come unexpectedly. Can one or should one interpret the story in the light of the evident meaning of the parable? If one interprets it thus, the point or theme might be roughly stated along these lines: Granny, despite all of her apparently com- mendable worldly activity—ministering to the sick, keeping the farm in good repair, etc. The second bridegroom does not appear at the moment that she expects him, and she therefore despairs and abandons her belief: For the second time there was no sign.

Again no bridegroom and the priest in the house. She could not remember any other sorrow because this grief wiped them all away. She stretched herself with a deep breath and blew out the light. Some support for this reading can be found in this passage: Granny felt easy about her soul. She had her secret comfortable under- standing with a few favored saints.

However, another way of looking at the story is to emphasize the point that, although at the end she is deeply disappointed, she remains active; she blows out the light. Against this, David C. Critical interpretation is provided by: Jane K. Brinkmeyer, Jr. If you have any Spanish-speaking students in your class, or even students whose acquaintance with Spanish does not go beyond a few years of high school study, you might ask them how they would translate the title.

While one is reading the story, say through the first one-third, it may seem to be chiefly a character sketch of Romero and a sketch of the community in which he lives, but then come two sentences that mark a turning point: Romero kept the sidewalks clean and the barrio looked after him. It was a contract that worked well for a long time. In the light of what happens next, some readers may think that the narra- tor or the author? This conflict is amusingly resolved when the well-meaning Seferino disappears into Harvard, thus sparing us a potentially embarrassing or painful scene in which the boy acknowledges his error.

Indeed, instead of empha- sizing the conflict between Barelas and his son, we get a scene in which Barelas— whose son has caused Romero to misbehave—is pitted against the rest of the community, which now seeks to confine Romero. These comments are obvious, and perhaps a bit too solemn, since the story has a good deal of delightful humor in it. One can ask the class what it finds amusing in the story. A favorite passage is the bit recounting how Romero, after breaking with Seferino, at first simply skipped the barber shop in his sweeping, but then refined his action and pushed all of the trash from elsewhere in front of the barber shop.

The story is about Romero, but almost as interestingly it is about Seferino. We can fairly easily guess what will happen to Romero in the next few years. What would you guess will happen to Seferino? Will his Harvard education lead to his increasing alienation from his community? Our own response is yes, in the short run, but—since he is a bright and sensitive youth and he has a wise father—we can hope that in the long run he will learn to appreciate and to cher- ish the ways of the barrio.

The church—especially perhaps the Roman Catholic Church—has often adapted itself to the old ways and beliefs of new converts, sometimes by retaining the old holidays and holy places but adapting them and dedicating them to the new reli-. Our sense is that the priest vaguely intuits an archetypal mystery, something older and more inclusive than the Roman Catholic ritual he engages in.

During most of the story the narrator neither editorializes nor enters the minds of the characters; we are not told that the characters are reverential, and for the most part we are not allowed to hear their thoughts. Rather, we see them perform ceremonies with dignity, and, because the point of view is chiefly objective, we draw our own conclusions. Possibly, too, by keeping outside of the minds of the characters the narrator helps to convey the traditional paleface idea that Native Americans are inscrutable people, people of few words.

Because the narrator, like the characters, is taciturn, some readers may think that Leon and his companions are callous. We do not know if the different colors of paint—white, blue, yellow, and green—have specific meanings, but perhaps blue suggests the sky and the water, yellow suggests corn meal, and green suggests vegetation. White is a fairly wide- spread sign of purity, but we have not been able to find out how Pueblo people regard it. This is an interesting poem, but it is a tricky poem to teach well.

As we always do with short poems, we first ask a student to read the poem aloud, and after he or she is done, there is usually an awkward silence. Students are not happy about such criticism. After all, here they are in a lit- erature course, where they are being taught to read analytically, examining tone, meter, metaphor, simile, and so on. Now they encounter an eminent poet—a former U. For us as teachers, the challenge is to encourage students to enjoy literature while, at the same time, developing their interpretive skills.

We know, as teach- ers, that learning to interpret literature carefully often leads us to enjoy poems that, at first, we did not enjoy: we did not enjoy these poems because we did not understand them, and once we do understand them, we can enjoy them— or at least can understand why other readers might. The students should see us performing important intellectual work, but they should also see us as lovers of literature, whose pleasure in literature has not faded away from too many years of close, careful critical interpretation.

Now, we return to the first part of the poem, in which Collins describes the approach—really, the approaches—that he invites students to take. The joy, the exhilaration, the possibility that one might fall— plus the wave of the hand toward the shore, which here Collins invokes in order to imply that it is the experience of the poem that matters, not the identity of the author that is over there , off in the distance. Our exploration of the first part of the poem dramatizes for the students the contrast that Collins aims for in the final lines.

There is a contrast between what comes before it and what comes next, and the starkness of the contrast makes it provocative. Yet, it also polarizes the issues that the poem engages, and that is our own critique of what Collins has done. Through his vivid images, Collins, to us, sets up a contrast that places enjoy- ment and analysis at odds with one another. On one level, the poet-speaker calls for receptivity, for pleasure and appreciation.

This is indeed an irksome poem, and sometimes we wonder how much we really admire it. However, it is a poem that sticks with students: it unsettles them and leaves them with a good measure of doubt and concern—and with lingering questions. David Citino , where he speaks about the pleasures of reading and writing. Note: We mentioned above that when dealing with short poems in particu- lar, we like to begin by asking a student to read the poem aloud.

This is a good idea, we think; among other things, it enables quiet students, who are fearful about offering interpretive comments, to find a safer for them way to enter into the discussion. But over the years we have come to realize that it is best to. Our questions in the text call attention to the fact that the two middle stanzas complicate the poem.

Of course sometimes in our lives we do make clear-cut choices between stark alternatives, but for the most part the choices are small, and are between things that seem pretty similar. For instance, a student may have been accepted at two very similar colleges, and the choice of where to go may be based on something rather trivial, e.

A few will say that a woman is the speaker, and we have found it interesting to ask them why. Those who say that a woman is the speaker usually suggest that she is unmarried and is speaking regretfully. Almost all students hear the voice of an older person, though they cannot always say why. Similarly, although a few students find the speaker aggressively offering unsolicited advice, most hear a friendly voice. Is the poem offensive to women? Some of our students have found it so. The editors of Literature for Composition belong to a generation that was taught, in grade school and in high school, that Teddy Roosevelt was a hero.

Some of his words entered the classroom, just as half a century later some of the words of John Kennedy—notably the Inaugural Address—entered the classroom. In the fifth question in the text, we quote yet another in famous remark, expressing the opinion that all immigrants should be required to learn English within five years.

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Although the sculptures. The entries that we cite in this manual for Chapter 6 are relevant here too. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, 2nd ed.

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You may next want to turn to a short, readable, but highly thoughtful book by Monroe Beardsley, The Possibility of Criticism Also of interest are E. Hirsch, Validity in Interpretation ; Paul B. Jac L. If there is a momentary longing for death in the poem, there is also the reassertion of the will to face the tasks of living.

The rhyming words in the first stanza can be indicated by aaba ; the sec- ond stanza picks up the b rhyme: bbcb. Indicate the rhymes for the third stanza. For the fourth. Why is it appropriate that the rhyme scheme dif- fers in the fourth stanza? How is the time of day and year sig- nificant? The gist of this faction is that the neighbor wisely realizes—as the speaker does not—that individual identity depends on respect for boundaries. Such a view sees the. For a long, judicious discussion of the poem, see John C. Addendum: In the quest to connect literature with life, some instructors have called attention to two fences or walls that are very much in the news, the fence being built in the U.

Our own instincts are not to refer to either of these. We do not think the poem offers a useful comment about immigration or about Israeli-Palestinian relations. On the other hand, several instructors assure us that students do deepen their understanding of the poem and of life by con- sidering these issues. We print the original version, from Poetry magazine, but in line 19 we give soot instead of spot an obvious typo in Poetry.

When the poem later appeared in book form it differed only in punctuation e. The matter has been thoroughly and apparently definitively discussed by Jack Stillinger, in an appendix to his book called The Hoodwinking of Madeline The problem is this: when the poem was first published, in Annals of the Fine Arts , the lines were printed thus: Beauty is Truth,—Truth Beauty—That is all Ye know on Earth, and all ye need to know. But Keats probably did not supervise the publication in The Annals , and because he was ill when Lamia was in production he may not have read the proofs or may not have read them attentively.

Many scholars there- fore do not feel obliged to accept the punctuation of the two printed texts. They point to the four extant manuscript transcripts of the poem none by Keats, but all by persons close to Keats. He goes on to summarize the interpretations, and we now summarize Stillinger. Poet to Reader. Poet to Urn. The poet speaks the end of line 49, and all of the last line, to the urn.

The poet tells the urn that it need know no more—but that we need to know a great deal more. Poet to Figures on Urn. The poet speaks the end of 49 and all of the last line to the figures on the urn. Further, why should the figures on the urn know this and only this? Urn to Reader. The urn speaks all of the two last lines. The objection is that the statement seems to defy common sense, and more important, it is not the way the Lamia volume punctuated the line.

Some critics have suggested that the quotation marks were meant to set off these five words as a sort of motto within a two-line statement by the urn. It is our impression that most editors today disregard the Lamia punctuation, put the whole of the two lines within quotation marks, and take the lines as spo- ken by the urn to the reader. In any case, a reader is still left to wonder whether the passage is profound wisdom or nonsense. Now to begin at the beginning.